The urine of the general traits inspection is part of the routine urine examination, the kidneys and urinary tract diseases have a certain diagnostic value. Including urine output, urine color, transparency, foam, odor, pH, specific gravity, infiltration volume (pressure), as described below.
(2) urine color is normal discharge of fresh urine, mostly pale yellow. The depth of the urine, in addition to the value of the level of enrichment depends on the urine and urine acidity (pH), is also affected by certain foods and drugs, so the larger changes. Occurrence of abnormal urine of kidney disease, caused by visible renal tuberculosis, kidney stones caused by a light red or reddish brown hematuria, tuberculosis oppression of the perirenal lymphatic white Chyluria, renal abscess caused by light green pyuria, etc..
(3) the transparency of normal urine is transparent, place may be a slight turbidity. Discharge of fresh urine was cloudy, mostly pathological, can be found in. Renal hematuria, pyuria, bacteriuria, fat, urine, chyluria.
(4) bubble normal urine shake of a small amount of white or light yellow foam. Severe nephrotic urine proteinuria, can produce a large number of white foam, which is due to protein changes the surface tension of the urine.
(5) normal smell of fresh urine, with special faint aroma. Place too long the urine, due to the contamination of bacterial decomposition of urea, ammonia odor; eating garlic or chili, urine with a garlic odor, and so on. The urine of the diabetic nephropathy ketoacidosis was apple-like odor, urine in the urinary system when the abscess and kidney abscess showing a corrupt and foul smell.
Under normal diet conditions (6) urine acidity (pH), urine pH of 4.6 to 8.0, an average of 6.0, normal urine showing a weak acid. Nephritis, renal tuberculosis common acidic urine, type I renal tubular alkalosis visible alkaline urine.
(7) the relative density of urine relative density of urine, the weight ratio of urine and pure water. Normal adults, in the ordinary diet, the relative density of urine more than fluctuations in the range of 1.015 ~ 1.025, the maximum fluctuation range of the 24h day of urine relative density of 1.003 ~ 1.035; relative density of the morning urine is often about 1.020. Urine relative density increased with acute nephritis, diabetes crazy Majesty kidney; urine relative density decreases, the common stage of chronic nephritis and diabetes insipidus.
(8) of urine 's penetration of the volume (pressure) urinary infiltration capacity of all means urine solute particles the total number. The amount of urine penetration only with the number of solute particles are less vulnerable to the impact of protein, glucose and other macromolecules, more realistic reflection of the renal concentration and dilution function. The normal adult urinary infiltration is generally 600 ~ 1000mmol / L, the average for the 800mmol / L, the maximum range of 40 of ~ 1400mmol / L. Reduce seen in obstructive nephropathy, uric acid nephropathy, increased seen in diabetic kidney disease.